Historically, Anjaw District is a newly formed district. It was emerged as a separate district on 16th February, 2004 after its split from the Lohit district. It is an administrative district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in north-east India. The border of the district touches China in the North. It is the second least populous district in India.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 11,402 sq. km. and occupies the rank 5th in State and 44th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 27093'N latitude, 96035'E longitude and 1296 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 64.64% forest area of total geographical area. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Lohit River, Lam River, Tidding River, Dalai River, Krowti River, Dichu River, Lati River, Klung River, Dav River, Telua River, Ampani River and Sarti River flow. The district is surrounded by China, Lohit district, Myanmar, Anjaw district and Changlang district. The actual rainfall in the district was 1238.4 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administratively, the district is divided into 8 sub-districts, 1 town and 305 villages. English is its administrative language. It has administrative headquarters located at Hawai, situated at the distance of 552 kms from the State Capital. It has one Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly constituency which is a part of the Arunachal East Lok Sabha constituency. There are seven administrative units in the district namely Hayuliang, Hawai, Manchal, Goiliang, Walong, Kibithoo and Chaglogam.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 4,180 households with a total population of 21,167 comprising 11,507 are males and 9,660 are females which leads it to rank 15th in the state and 639th in India. The density of population of the district is 6 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 839 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 991 (females per 1000 males). The schedule tribe population of the district is recorded as 16,451 including 8,208 are males, and 8,243 are females. As per 2011 census the percentage of major religion practiced by the people of this region is Hindu with 61.83%. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 14.78% including 13.21% were males and 16.71% were females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Mishmi and Hindi with 72.34% and 7.03%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 2,507 out of which 1,054 were males and 1,453 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 314 out of which 202 were males and 112 were females.
Economically, paddy, maize and millets are the main agricultural crops grown in the Anjaw district. The other major products are, rice, beans, cardamom, orange, pears, plum, and apple.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the district has a literacy rate of 56.46% persons including 66.81% are males and 43.71% are females. The total population of literate people is 9,990 including 6,523 are males and 3,467 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 11,177 including 4,984 are males and 6,193 are females. The district has several Government and private schools and colleges such as Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya. Engineering Colleges, Arts and Science Colleges are also available here.
Kalikho Pul is a politician. He has served as State Finance Minister from 2003 to 2007. He was appointed as the 8th Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 19th February, 2016.
The district has several famous tourist places to visit. These places are Hayuliang, Hawai, Chaglogam, Walong, Hot Spring, Dong, Kibithoo. The major attraction of Hawai is a Cable Suspension Bridge which is built on the Lohit River. It is also called Anjaw Bridge. Hayuliang is a city of Anjaw district. The meaning of the term Hayuliang is ‘the place of my liquor'. Tourists can enjoy beautiful spots here. Dong is situated on the bank of the Lohit River. Snow covered mountains and dense forests are the main attractions of the area. Kibithoo is located on the Lohit River, near the border of India and China. It is full of spectacular scenery. It has cool and healthy climate. The district has two hot springs, one nearby Walong and second at the meeting place of Lohit River and Dichu River. The Main attractions of Chaglogam are adventurous activities like trekking, angling, rafting, mountain climbing and other such activities. The district also has a place named Walong which means “a place full of bamboos” in the Mishmi dialect. It witnessed the battle of 1962, Indo China war. The climate of this place is very cool and healthy.