Ludhiana district is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Ludhiana city. The place got its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, who founded it in 1480. At the time of Akbar, the great Mughal emperor, this reign formed a part of the Sarkar of Sirhind. In the last of the Mughal era the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot. At the beginning of the eighteenth century the place became semi independent of the Mughals. After Mughals the Ludhiana district came under the rule of brave local Sikh Chieftains from the period of 1707-1835. When there was the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, it became a vital British cantonment. In 1805, Ranjit Singh captured Ludhiana but in 1809, the British decided to curtail his advance eastward and they sent troops to confront him. Moreover, he was forced by British to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with them. Originally, the city was called Lodhi-ana which means the place of Lodhi’s. Later, its name was changed to ‘’Ludhiana’’ as it is known today.
Gulzar Singh Sandhu, a distinguished Punjabi language writer was born on 27th February, 1935 at Kotla village in the district. He was honoured by the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award for his short story collection, Amar Katha in 1982. He also received some other notable awards like International Association of Authors, Playwrights and Artists of Canada in 1992 and Shiromoni Punjabi Sahityakar Puruskar in 2001. Sunil Bharti Mittal, an eminent Indian entrepreneur, philanthropist and also the founder, chairman and Group CEO of Bharti Enterprises was born on 23rd October, 1957 in Ludhiana. The Government of India honoured him by Padma Bhushan award in 2007.
Geographically, the district lies at 30090' N latitude, 75086' E longitude and 244 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 1.65% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,578 sq km. and it is bounded by Sutlej River on the north, Sangrur district and Patiala district on the south, Rupnagar district on the east and Moga district on the west. The prominent river that flows through the district is Sutlej. The climate of the district remains very hot in the summer and extreme cold in the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 713.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 8 tehsils namely Ludhiana East, Ludhiana West, Jagraon, Samrala, Khanna, Payal, Raikot and Ludhiana Central. There are one Lok Sabha seat and 14 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 20 towns and 885 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 34,98,739 including 18,67,816 are males and 16,30,923 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 873 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 15.36% out of which 12.34% were males and 19.04% were females. The population density in the district is 978 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 55,788 out of which 28,806 were males and 26,982 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 25,246 out of which 14,913 were males and 10,333 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Sikh and Hindu with 53.26% and 42.94% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district are Punjabi and Hind with 79.66% and 19.53%.
Most of the population of the district are engaged in agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, wheat, maize, etc. The district has also some industries of machine parts, auto parts, house hold appliances, hosiery, garments, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries. It has Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing which produces more than 50% of India's bicycle. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 65,19,046 lakh at current price and Rs. 54,99,070 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2016-17 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 57,67,305 lakh at current price and Rs. 48,43,379 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the year 2016-17 was Rs. 1,52,332 at current price and Rs. 1,27,929 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The Asia’s largest agricultural university named Punjab Agricultural University is situated in Ludhiana. The district has numerous professional higher educational institutions and among them the most reputed educational institutions are Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Christian Medical College, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 82.2% including 85.98% are males and 77.88% are females.
Sudarshan Agarwal, the former Governor of Uttarakhand (January 2003 to October 2007) and Sikkim (October 2007 to July 2008) was born on 19th June, 1931 at Ludhiana city. He was also served as a Secretary-General of the Rajya Sabha. Manish Tewari, an illustrious Indian politician and the Union Minister of State (Independent charge) with the portfolio of Information and Broadcasting from October 2012 to May 2014 was born on 8th December, 1965 in Ludhiana district. He was also served as the member of Parliament from Ludhiana in 2009.
During the year 2018, there were 58,56,227 domestic tourists and 41,127 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has numerous centre of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the world. Manji Sahib popularly known as Alamgir Sahib is situated near the Alamgir villiage in the district. This Gurudwara was made in the name of tenth Sikh guru called Guru Gobind Singh. Devoted followers from across the country come to this place to offer their prayers. Every year in the month of September a fair named Chhapar Mela held in the Chhapar village in the district. In the memory of Gugga Pir, this mela (fair) celebrates. Nehru Rose Garden, established in 1967 is a place full of greenery in Ludhiana city. It is Asia’s largest Rose Garden which spread over an area of 27 acres and has large varieties of roses as well as several fountains. Hardy’s World is an amusement park of Ludhiana and a perfect location for enjoyment. Guru Nanak Bhawan, a multi faceted complex with big auditorium, mini auditorium, Shopping Arcade and Library. Rural life museum, situated within the campus of the Punjab Agricultural University is one of the most admired tourist spot. This museum tries its level best to depict the rural Punjabi culture. Some other extraordinary tourist places in the district are Tiger Safari, Maharaj Ranjit Singh war museum, Gurdwara Charankanwal Sahib Machhiwara, Guru Nanak Sports Stadium, etc.